In soils usually have all the necessary plant nutrients. But often, the individual elements are not enough for a satisfactory plant growth. On sandy soils, plants often lack magnesium, on peat soils – molybdenum on chernozem – manganese and so on. N. The use of mineral fertilizers – one of the main methods of intensive farming. With the help of fertilizers can greatly increase crop yields to any already developed areas at no additional cost to the processing of new land.
For the application of mineral fertilizers used the fertilizer drills.
Mineral fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, complex and micro fertilizers. These are chemical products and contain one or more nutrients in higher concentrations.
In addition, there complex fertilizers which include several active substances balanced.
Carbamide-ammonia mixture (CAM)
CAM – a mixture of aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate and urea (in a ratio of 35.4% urea ammonium nitrate 44.3%, 19.4% water, 0.5% ammonia water). The density of the product up to 1.34 kg/m3.
The only nitrogen fertilizer, which contains three forms of nitrogen:
• nitrate – provides instant action
• ammonia – in the process of nitrification goes in the nitrate form,
• amide – as a result of activity of soil microorganisms transformed into ammonium form, and then to nitrate.
Thus, the CAM provides a prolonged fertilizing of plants with nitrogen. In the absence of CAS in the free ammonia, it does not evaporate into the atmosphere when you apply, but the presence of the ammonium form is still making the minimum desired terminations, especially at high temperatures and lack of rainfall after application.
The cost of nitrogen in the CAM are the lowest, since the loss of nitrogen when applying CAM does not exceed 10% of the total nitrogen, while in the applying of granular nitrogen fertilizer they reach 30-40%.
One of the major advantages of the CAM is in its high technology:
• the applying of CAM as a liquid fertilizer is much more evenly than solid granular.
• the applying of CAM is well combined with the use of pesticides in a tank mixture. This reduces the number of operations to the care of crops.
• CAM can be used for fertilizing the growing plants in a way that is both a root and foliar application. Thus, depending on the phases of the development of culture and the equipment used in the CAM was diluted with water or a required ratio is not diluted.
• If necessary, the application of CAM is well combined with the application of water-soluble fertilizer with trace elements.
The importance of foliar fertilizing is caused by the following factors: in times of stress (low temperature, frost, lack of moisture, etc.), the assimilation of nutrients root system slows to a crawl, but it slows down the growth and development. At low temperatures or lack of moisture in the soil nutrient uptake is much slower. Often the critical periods of relative lack of macro-and microelements in cereals occur in the phase of the tube – ear formation. Due to intense, rapid growth of the vegetative mass, easily accessible supplies of nutrients from the soil are exhausted or the assimilation of “not keeping pace with the growth of plants.” In such situation a foliar (leaf) dressings can be helpful for a plant.
The degree (percentage) and the rate of absorption of nutrients from fertilizers through the leaf surface are significantly higher than in the assimilation of fertilizer made the soil.
For this purpose, it is best suited solutions of urea and CAM, diluted with water. Amide form of nitrogen to quickly penetrate the leaf surface.
Foliar application is useful to combine with the application of trace elements and / or pesticides. The range of water-soluble micronutrients and pesticides is high enough and agronomist determines what should be the most active ingredient plant at the moment.
Recommendations for the reconciliation of water-soluble fertilizers and CAM you can find in more details on the page of the water-soluble fertilizer.
CAM – is a very flexible tool for an additional supply of crops in a highly efficient production. It allows you to adjust the fertilizer in the key phases of plant development for correcting, strengthening the missing factors in the development, to obtain the required characteristics of commodity products (protein, gluten, malting barley, etc.).
In addition the CAM does not pollute the environment, improve the consumption of nitrogen during the drought, the operating costs of its application is much lower than other fertilizers. CAM is not toxic, fire-and explosion-proof, which is especially true for nitrate. The application of CAM is made with the most accurate application rates. It can be transported in any containers (plastic, stainless steel, carbon steel). By adding a corrosion inhibitor (‘Azot’ PJSC Cherkassy uses “NOVOKOR”) under the continuous possession of CAM corrosion does not exceed 1 mm per year.
CAM can be used at such periods and methods:
1. In autumn – a basic processing.
2. In spring – presowing processing.
3. The root and foliar additional fertilizing.
Standards and doses of CAM depends on the type of culture, time and method of application, the predecessor of fertilized culture and other factors taken into account when designing a system of plant nutrition. No special restrictions exist.
The first spring additional fertilizing of winter crops after the snow made for the resumption of plant growth during the period of tillering with a dose of 30-40 kg of reactant per hectare, when the temperature is above 10 ° C, the CAM does not require dilution. Increase the dose of fertilizer is possible.
A second additional fertilizing is combined with the addition of plant protection products, plant growth regulators in the phase of beginning of stem elongation, while the single rate of nitrogen should not exceed 30 kg of reactant. The second additional fertilizing of winter crops CAM to avoid burns it is advisable to dilute the water in the ratio 1:2. And when applied together with the herbicide – 1:3 or 1:4. If necessary, additional application of nitrogen fertilization is possible late in the third phase of the early heading stage of winter wheat with norm not exceeding 10 kg of reactant.
For spring crops the best results achieved by fractional application:
80 kg / ha – in presowing cultivation;
20-30 kg / ha – in the first stage of a node;
5-8% percent solution in Step 2 of the first node, it is desirable to add a sulfa drugs, contributing to an increase in protein content.
When you make a foliar application of CAM vegetative plants, the dose of nitrogen should not exceed 30kg of reactant with the necessary dilution with water at a ratio of 1:4 because of the risk of burns plants. For barley CAM is most advisable to make a basic fertilizer presowing cultivation.
CAM solutions can be made by diluting and not diluting with water. It depends on the technical capabilities of units. Upon dilution rate of the working solution of 1 hectare must be 100-300l.
The best time to foliar feed with solutions of CAM – morning (with no condensation), and evening hours. In cool and cloudy weather this work can be carried out during the day. You should not fertilize the plants with solutions of CAM at a temperature above 20 ° C, low relative humidity, on a sunny day as possible burns to the leaf surface of plants could occur. Plants leaflets are the most susceptible to burn. CAM solutions even when a dose of 10 kg of nitrogen per 1 ha cause burns to the plant during all phases of plant development, but they do not lead to a decrease in yield.
When using CAM as a foliar fertilizing solution pH should be between 8 and 9. The effectiveness of this fertilizer is largely dependent on weather conditions. It is a maximum when the solution remains on the leaf surface for a long time. Therefore, treatment of crops gives the best results in cloudy cool weather.
It is not recommended to use CAM in a mixture immediately after the heavy rains, strong dew as the precipitation structure of the upper plate makes the sheet more permeable (or more sensitive), so the spraying of crops should be carried out after drying the leaves of plants.
The optimal time of day to make the CAM in combination with herbicides is evening, as the absorption of nitrogen is slower at night. When applying the CAM it is necessary to use should spray droplet sized twice larger than herbicides.
Benefits of the Code of granular fertilizers obvious, first of all – it’s efficiency, frugality, safety and ease of use.
One of the first businesses in Ukraine who started an implementation and introduction of CAS is a private firm “Lany Podillya”. With the increasing popularity of CAS company now sells 20 000 tons of mix per year.
Adding CAS Sprayers “ROSA” has an additional positive effect, the cultivation of winter crops as possible in terms of early (first 5-7 days of vegetation) with high soil moisture where nitrogen fixation is the most effective.
Also, CAS recommended to bring along with it the breeding of plant growth biostimulator pellets Nano-Gro. As shown by studies conducted at the company LLC “Roxanne-K” in Vinnitsa region, increase winter wheat yield in combination with CAS-32 Nano-Gro was 14 quintals per 1 hectare.